EFA Global Monitoring Report 2015: What did we achieve?

Share your views on the forthcoming 2015 EFA Global Monitoring Report [If you are not comfortable writing in English, you can post in any other UN language (русский, 中文, français, العربية, Español) and we’ll translate it for you]

The 2015 Education for All Global Monitoring Report (EFA GMR) will review how much the EFA movement has contributed to ensuring that all children, young people and adults have benefited from the right to an education that meets their basic learning needs. The Report will provide a definitive assessment of overall progress at the national, regional and global level toward the six EFA goals that were established in Dakar, Senegal, in 2000. The assessment will establish whether the goals were achieved and, if not, whether progress slowed or accelerated since 2000. It will pay particular attention to gaps between those groups who benefited from progress and those who did not. This assessment will provide lessons for the framing of post-2015 education goals and strategies.

We would like to hear your views on the topic through this on-line consultation over the next six weeks. The GMR team is particularly keen to receive your thoughts on the areas noted below, including suggestions on relevant data analysis and case studies. The views of researchers, academics, governments, non-governmental organizations, aid donors, teachers, youth and anyone with an interest in education and development are extremely welcome.

Please post your contributions as comments to this blog, providing web links to research reports, policy papers, evaluations, and other documents or datasets which you think would be useful for the GMR team.

If you would rather email your comments, or have attachments of documents or data that you would like to share with the GMR team, please send them directly to efareport@unesco.org with #edpost2015 as a subject heading.

As this note (English | French | Spanish) outlines, the Report will:

  • identify the big changes that have taken place in educational policies and programmes since the World Education Conference in Dakar vis-à-vis the six EFA goals highlighting the factors behind these changes, including the role of the EFA movement;
  • assess to what extent such policies and programmes were successful in making progress towards EFA objectives; and
  • analyse how the present policy environment may influence the achievement of a more ambitious education agenda after 2015 and what monitoring tools will be needed.

We would like to hear your views as to whether the note on our forthcoming Report captures the key factors that have affected progress towards each goal or not. To what extent – and how – did the EFA movement contribute to what was achieved? What lessons can be drawn from the EFA movement as a new international education agenda is taking shape?

Thank you for your time and interest in our Report – we look forward to hearing from you.

Also join us on twitter via @efareport and #GMR2015 and #edpost2015

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24 thoughts on “EFA Global Monitoring Report 2015: What did we achieve?

  1. Purva Gupta

    Global March Against Child Labour recently brought out a policy paper on out-of-school children and child labour. The paper can be downloaded from this link: http://globalmarch.org/sites/default/files/Policy-Paper.pdf

    For achieving the goal of universal primary education, the paper highlights the urgent need and priority focus on the hardest to reach category of children who are missing out on an education. And within the hardest to reach category, the paper places special emphasis on child labour whose number though have reduced from 215 million to 168 million, the pace of reduction has slowed down. Efforts towards education for all will have to be inclusive of efforts to eliminate child labour.

  2. Adelaide Sosseh

    EFA GMR 2015 Consultations
    1. The big changes that have taken place in educational policies and programmes since April 2000.
    1. Greater involvement of Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) in educational policy development and programming at all levels
    2. Inclusive policies has redirected attention to previously neglected areas such as Early Childhood Development (ECD), Provision for Children attending Muslim Koranic Schools, Special Needs Education and Girls Education
    3. Financing mechanisms

    2. To what extent such policies and programmes were successful in making progress towards EFA objectives
    2.1 The active role played by CSOs in engaging with decision makers and participating in the formulation, implementation and monitoring of educational policies and programmes in response to the Dakar Call for action has influenced policy development at all levels. The emergence of strong education coalitions at the national, regional (ANCEFA in Africa; ASPBAE in Asia CLADE in Latin America) and global levels (Global Campaign on Education) has resulted in coherent, unified advocacy for EFA. The diversity of these coalitions has enabled them to bring to the table the different needs and aspirations of the multivariate target groups which has facilitated inclusion. Education is no longer the prerogative of the “fortunate few” but has been democratized to reach the most marginalized members of society.

    CSO participation in bodies such as the Collective Consultation for NGOs (CCNGO), the Global Partnership on Education (GPE) and the United Nations Girl’s Education Initiative (UNGEI) has added another layer of influence on global decision making and resource allocation.

    2.2 Inclusive Policies: Some examples of this influence on education policies are given below:
    2.2.1 ECD: Several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have placed increasing priority on the first EFA goal-increasing and expanding access to ECD due to an increased scientific knowledge on child development derived from evidence of brain theory in the formative years of the child’s life to their intellectual growth, learning and well being. Holistic policies and legal frameworks for ECD have been developed taking into consideration the nutritional, health, emotional, intellectual, physical and personal security needs of the child. In 2012 76% of countries in SSA were engaged in ECD policy planning or implementation. These policies are supported by a variety of stakeholders who have interest in parts of or the whole of ECD. These include the World Bank, UNICEF, UNESCO and the Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA).
    Initiatives supported by the different stakeholders include the:
    • The Early Childhood Development Virtual University (ECDVU) supported by the World Bank which is a one year graduate programme aimed at cultivating leadership and building networks and capacity in ECD in SSA ;
    • The ECCD Initiative which provided support to eight countries (Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania/Zanzibar, and Zambia) to mainstream ECD within their policy and programming, particularly for the most vulnerable children;
    • The Holistic Early Childhood Development Index initiative (HECDI) developed by UNESCO which has been piloted it in 13 African countries ;
    • The Basic Education Programme in Africa (BEAP) promoted by ADEA and UNESCO which encompasses an expanded vision of basic education to include ECD and adult and non formal education and is being implemented in countries like Kenya, Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, Uganda, Rwanda, Gambia, and Senegal.
    • The technical support provided by the ADEA working group on ECD for ECD planning in Burkina Faso, Mauretania and Senegal; the development and publication of a ‘Guide of Innovation and Good practice on ECD’ to give member states a plan and template for addressing ECD; have organized continental conferences which brought together experts, policy makers and development partners to generate support for ECD policies and programming for countries.
    • The Inter-Country Quality Node (ICQN) which was established as a Centre of Excellence and innovation for ECD by ADEA-WGECD, UNDP, UNESCO, the African Union, the government of Mauritius government with the participation of World Bank, UNICEF, Save the Children and implemented by 12 African countries have developed.
    • Good practices in ECD include the Escolinhas ECD programme of Mozambique, the Caisse de Tout Petit in Senegal, the RISE Project in Zanzibar.

    2.2.2 Gender Mainstreaming
    Gender with a greater focus on girls has been mainstreamed into education policies. Gender mainstreaming strategies include provision of child friendly learning environments which provide school environments that are: free of discrimination and provide equal opportunities for boys and girls to realize their potential; that are safe and secure with separate toilet facilities for boys and girls; free from violence; gender balanced in terms of teacher provision with teachers who have been trained in gender sensitivity and free from gender stereotypes. Specific and targeted programmes include provision of scholarship schemes for girls and mentoring programmes.

    This has led to the attainment of gender parity in many countries. Despite this progress gender disparities remain in many of the countries. These disparities include wealth, educational and location disparities. The poorest girls have the least chance of completing primary school when compared to the wealthiest boys. Even though retention and performance of girls in school is a main feature of education policies and programmes many girls do not go beyond grade 3 due to a wide variety of factors including poor learning outcomes, household chores, early marriage and other socio-cultural factors in the wider society.

    Key advocates for mainstreaming gender in national education policies in Africa include the GPE, UNGEI, UNICEF, UNESCO, other UN agencies, ANCEFA, Forum for African Women Educationalists and CSOs. Some examples of good practice include:

    • The support given by the GPE and UNGEI for girl’s education and gender equality for global and country level mechanisms. The UNGEI partnership brings strong expertise and experience related to girls’ education and gender equality. This includes the provision of technical assistance for a gender analysis to ensure gender issues are integrated in education sector plans; the development of gender indicators for progress monitoring, and knowledge; sharing of good practices to ensure girls are learning and achieving in a safe and supportive learning environment; gender and gender summary of the GMR. Such support has contributed to strengthening GPE’s global processes and country policies to support developing countries with education funding to get all children in school and learning.

    • The AU 2nd Decade for Education 2006-2015 a complimentary policy framework for achievement of EFA and MDGs has put in place an implementing strategy which includes working in partnership with FAWE and the International Centre International for the Education of Girls and Women in Africa (CIEFFA). These partner agencies have undertaken various initiatives to promote the positive aspects of gender and culture. The CIEFFA as the AU specialized agency for girls education has developed gender and culture indicators for the AU Observatory, and build capacity in the use of these indicators.

    • FAWE’s work in 33 countries has boosted girl’s enrolment through targeted programmes using a tripartite approach between schools, communities, CSOs and governments. Key achievements include the establishment of ‘Centres of Excellence’ that have led to increased rates of girls’ enrolment, performance and retention; “Tuseme” a successful youth empowerment model; the introduction of a gender-responsive pedagogy that has improved gender relations within schools; the development of a model for Science, Mathematics and Technology (SMT) that has increased girls participation in these areas of learning and a social mobilization. The role played by FAWE Mothers Clubs in the countries where they exist is acclaimed as an innovative grassroots initiative that has contributed to increasing the access and retention of girls in schools.

    • ANCEFA’s engagement with regional bodies such as the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the Conference of Ministers of Education in Africa (COMEDAF) and other mechanisms has ensured wider participation of CSOs in sustained advocacy for girl’s education. ANCEFA also works with other CSOs – Action Aid, Plan International, Save the Children and UNGEI and UNICEF regional office in West Africa to address the issue of Violence against Girls in and around schools. A recent workshop jointly organized by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, UNGEI and UNICEF facilitated sharing of good practices between partners to draw up a comprehensive plan of action to fight against this pandemic in West Africa . The issue of Child Marriages and other practices which keep girls out of school are also being addressed through collaboration with Girls Not Brides.

    2.4 Educational Provision for Muslim children who attend informal religious schools
    One of the greatest challenges of the past two and half decades has been how to address the educational needs of Muslim populations that prefer to send their children to the informal Koranic schools. Even though it is recognized that “one size does not fit all” there has not been any serious attempt to satisfy the right of these children to access quality education in a school of their choice. The dichotomy in educational provision between children of the same nation who attend formal school and those who prefer alternative forms of learning such as religious education is overt. There is an absence of the children who prefer religious education in education policies and plans while those who attend the formal school system have all their educational needs for provided for. Few countries have developed policies to address the needs of children whose parents opt to send them to the informal Koranic schools. The Gambia is one of those countries that is addressing the issue of the children who attend Koranic schools by piloting a conditional cash transfer to teachers to allow the children enrolled in the ‘daras’ to focus their time on learning instead of engaging in other activities that distract them from teaching and learning and that exposes them to innumerable risks. Lessons learnt from the pilot should be used to inform policy.

    2.4 Funding Mechanisms
    Two funding mechanisms emerged after Dakar. These were the Fast Track Initiative now the GPE and the Commonwealth Education Fund (CEF). Without these two mechanisms governments and CSOs would have found it difficult to attain the gains that they have made over this period. At end of 2010 at least 22 countries worldwide had received funding from the GPE. These include Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central Africa Republic (CAR), Djibouti, Ethiopia, the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mali, Malawi, Mauritania, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Zambia. Even though aid to basic education has doubled since 2002, current aid levels still fall short of the required to close the financing gaps for low income countries majority of which are in Africa.

    Acquiring funds for education advocacy work is not easy. The CEF provided by the British Government in 2002 strengthened the capacity of CSOs in sixteen Commonwealth countries to engage in education advocacy work in Africa and Asia. CEF came to an end in 2008. The final evaluation report “Funding Change” , proposed the setting up of National Civil Society Education Funds (NCSEF) to fill the funding gap that would be created as a result of its closure.

    The CSEF funded by GPE provides grants to National Education Coalitions (NECs) to build their capacity in education advocacy and facilitate cross-country and cross-regional learning; strengthen their participation in national education sector planning and policy processes; build greater public awareness of and engagement in education issues; improve the quality of their evidence based research to inform policy and decision making at all levels.

    3. Analyse how the present policy environment may influence the achievement of a more ambitious education agenda after 2015 and what monitoring tools will be needed.
    3.1 ECD: In a post 2015 agenda there should be greater focus on implementation and enforcement of ECD policies. Studies should be undertaken to draw lessons from effective processes and implementation arrangements and mechanisms and the knowledge acquired should be used to ensure that countries can better promote young children’s healthy growth, development and learning . The gender dimensions of ECD should be taken into consideration to equip young children with positive messages of empowerment to provide them with the knowledge and skills that can enable them to develop positive self-esteem thus enabling them to shed the negative stereotypes that perpetuate discrimination. Children with special needs should be given special education and be integrated into suitable ECD in which their learning is enhanced by appropriate staff-child ratios; teachers and support staff must receive appropriate training to deal with the special needs of the children; appropriate structures should be set up to ensure that, as early as possible, effective efforts are made to observe, identify and prevent education and health problems relating to the child. Effective support should be provided where necessary to minimise difficulties when a need has been identified. Appropriate measures should be taken to ensure gender mainstreaming in ECD.

    Gender equity: The consequences of violence against girls and child marriage are felt at both the individual and societal levels. While these have negative impact on girls’ health, social status and life chances, the practice likewise overburdens the social, public health and economic infrastructure of poor nations and threatens global notions of human security and sustainable development. Both pandemics constitute a “crisis” in human development and needs attention at all levels. The issue of child marriage is inextricably linked to poverty and must be ended if inter-generational poverty is to eliminated.

    Inclusive Education: Education is a human right which must be respected and maintained. However, ensuring that ‘no child is left behind’ creates its own set of challenges. The diversity in the learning environment creates numerous challenges for teachers and students who come from diverse backgrounds. These include children with special needs as well children from high poverty homes, conflict and emergency zones as well as children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Standard theories, practices and attitudes do not stand up to the test and addressing the individual needs of the different children is critical if each child has to perform to their maximum potential. It is important for teachers, educators and schools to practice differentiation instruction to enable them focus on essential skills in each content area; to be responsive to individual differences and provide students with multiple avenues to learning. The result is a learning environment where specialized instruction is the norm for all students.

    Teachers: The critical role that is played by teachers in maintaining the human face in a world of technology and digitization cannot be overemphasized. Human values can only be transmitted from one human being to another and to ensure that the world does not lose its humanity teachers have to be well prepared to teach in a 21st century learning environment (classroom/home/ camp/etc.) The Post 2015 agenda will need to focus on teacher education, distribution and remuneration beyond the current models that now exist and which have fallen far short of meeting expectations. The new agenda should rethink many aspects of our education systems and modes of delivery; the quality of recruiting teacher trainees; the type of pre-service education received; the type of in-service education received and how teachers are monitored and what educational support is given to enable them carry out their roles and responsibilities effectively and humanely; how they should be adequately compensated and how their personal securities and those of their students are assured in a world of escalating violence and natural emergencies.

    References
    ECDVU website http://www.ecdvu.org/index.php

    http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTAFRREGTOPEDUCATION/Resources/444707-1306157488955/NeumanZanzibarECDrew

    http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading-the-international-agenda/education-for-all/single-view/news/better_monitoring_in_sight_for_the_well_being_of_young_children/

    http://www.unesco.org/new/en/dakar/education/basic-education-in-africa-programme/

    http://www.adeanet.org/portalv2/en/inter-country-quality-nodes-icqn

    Regional Workshop Report on Gender Based Violence in the Schools, Organised jointly by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, UNGEI and UNICEF, 19-21 November 2013 in Burkina Faso. The Workshop covered the education of girls in West Africa, the institutional barriers in girl’s education policies; gender based violence in schools: definition, identification, evaluation; existing activities; best practices; strategies and prospects.
    Research by the Commonwealth Education Fund (CEF) which identifies mechanisms for sustaining support to civil society funds working on education advocacy. http://www.globalpartnership.org/content/funding-change-sustaining-civil-society-advocacy-education
    “Africa’s Future, Africa’s Challenge: Early Childhood Development in SSA.” ttps://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/6365/427000PUB0Afri1sclosed0Feb025020081.pdf?sequence=1

  3. Clinton Robinson

    In the 2015 review it will be important to include two areas of monitoring that appear not to be in focus in the concept note/outline:
    1. Dakar not only adopted six goals, but also 12 strategies. These strategies were conceived as critical for the implementation of the whole EFA agenda, and they have remained relevant throughout the 15 years. However, there has been little reference to them and next to no monitoring of them as such. Since the review intends to look at the ‘how’ of implementation, therefore strategy, an assessment of the pertinence and usefulness of the 12 strategies will serve as a backdrop for considering the place and nature of strategy in the future international educational agenda,
    2. After Dakar, international mechanisms and processes were put in place to maintain and extend the momentum of EFA. In 2015, a number of questions must be asked about the shape and effectiveness of these processes:
    – what was the rationale for the international mechanisms that were set up, and how and why did they evolve in the course of the 15 years?
    – how were their role and purpose conceived and put into practice, and what was their impact on the pursuit of EFA?
    – how effective were they in shaping/guiding policies internationally, regionally and nationally? Did they make a difference in shaping the responses to the changing challenges of EFA?
    – what assessment can be made of the contributions of the 5 Dakar-organising agencies, and of the coordinating role of UNESCO? Did international partnerships boost momentum, add value to the process, and build cooperative endeavour?
    This assessment should end by asking: what lessons the international community has learnt from the EFA processes, and so how international agencies can best organise themselves to give broad support (beyond finance) to a new educational agenda?

  4. Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SDC

    Extended outline GMR 2015

    General comments
    - At the end of the EFA/Dakar Framework for Action it is crucial to look back what has been achieved and where major bottlenecks are. This is also important to have an outlook for the post-2015 agenda, even if it will be already framed at the time of publication of the GMR 2015. Nevertheless, with the aim of giving on overview of policies and programs, as well as research and main finding on all the 6 EFA goals and on financing, seems to be quite ambitious. With such a broad overview, it will be difficult to deepen some topics. GMR should take this opportunity to demonstrate, 15 years after 2000, the relevance or not of monitoring a framework for action which is based on a set of 6 goals (EFA) rather than on two specific education related goals (MDGs)? How this exercise of monitoring the six goals has improved knowledge and lessons learned for education and skills policies, at the international and national levels? SDC does believe that a comprehensive set of goals is coherent and relevant regarding the diversity of challenges and education systems worldwide.
    - The quality of education with its different aspects (teachers, curricula, pedagogy, language of instruction, teaching material, what do kids, youth and adults effectively learn at school and how useful is this for the context they live in, etc.) is not so much addressed. It could be taken up more explicitly in the review of each EFA goal.
    - The focus on the use of mobile technologies is well appreciated.

    Specific comments on EFA goals

    EFA goal 2:
    - When talking about out of school children, marginalized groups, mobile and nomadic communities, working children, etc., it is important to consider non-formal/alternative provisions, and their inclusion in national policies and financing by governments.
    EFA goal 3:
    - The document says that progress in secondary-education will be reported. It is important that report not only focuses on formal secondary schools, but also on non-formal education provisions for children and youth. What policies have proven to be effective? What is the financial part in ESP for this and how much the government contributes? It is also important to assess non-formal education provisions (including learning outcomes) for children and youth who – mainly because of their age – can’t re-enter formal education. What provisions for them?
    EFA goal 4:
    - It is important to reiterate the necessity of adult literacy as a contribution. As the report states, adult literacy is not so much on the agenda anymore; but convincing data exists why it is so crucial for a sustainable development and results in other areas (health, environment, economic development, citizenship, agricultural development, etc.).
    - In this chapter, it would be important to also look into innovative pedagogical approaches, community participation, examples of how to measure literacy outcomes (e.g. “Recherche-action sur les acquis de l’apprentissage de l’alphabétisation des adultes” RAAMA of UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning) and post-literacy programs and measures (e.g. literate environment with libraries, etc.)
    - We welcome the suggestion of GMR to discuss the evolution of policies and programmes in the use of mother tongue and official languages, in basic education (included adult literacy programmes). We would like to draw attention on the wording: in Sub-Saharan western African countries, mother tongues (the most important one) are considered as national languages and recognized by educational laws.
    EFA goal 5:
    - Go in this chapter beyond girls, but include also (young) women. 2/3 of the global number of illiterates are women!
    - Regarding gender-related harassment, sexual violence is not mentioned although it is an important one.
    EFA goal 6:
    - The first sentence of goal 6 about quality says: “the need to ensure that children actually learn (…)”. But goal 6 on quality isn’t only about children learning outcomes but also youth (goal 3) and adults (goal 4); goal 6 should not be restricted to goal 1 and 2 only.
    - Learning assessments for non-formal education provisions and adult literacy should also be assessed and share. One of the main challenges for the lack of financing for non-formal education is the lack or the “non-acknowledgment” of learning assessment and data.
    - We acknowledge the focus on decentralized governance of education. Community and parents participation not only the school management, but also in the definition of the type of education they need and want should be highlighted.
    - Talking about quality, the report should further highlight the importance of different pedagogical and didactical approaches, the content of curricula and its relevance to different contexts.
    Finance:
    - We welcome the idea of analyzing the contribution of oil-rich Arab States to supporting education. We suggest adding the role played by oil-rich Arab States related Foundations.

  5. Pingback: Introducing the new director of EFA Global Monitoring Report: Dr Aaron Benavot | World Education Blog

  6. Sarabeth, Teach For All

    The most recent GMR states:
    “Teachers have the future of this generation in their hands. We need 5.2 million teachers to be recruited by 2015, and we need to work harder to support them in providing children with their right to a universal, free and quality education. We must also make sure that there is an explicit commitment to equity in new global education goals set after 2015, with indicators tracking the progress of the marginalized so that no one is left behind.”

    Teach For All is a growing network of over 30 independent partner organizations with a shared vision of expanding educational opportunity in their countries. At Teach For All, our experience has shown that there’s no single solution to a problem as multi-faceted and entrenched as educational inequity. But no matter what the approach, we’ve learned that the most powerful factor is leadership.

    The partners in the Teach For All network believe that leadership is the key to transforming schools, systems, and—ultimately—children’s futures, and to that end we’re galvanizing future leaders who understand educational inequity and are committed to change. Each network partner recruits and develops diverse and outstanding graduates and young professionals to teach in their nations’ most high-need classrooms and to work throughout their lives to increase opportunity for children.

    We need more strong leaders like these, at every level, challenging inequality from every direction.

    Teachers:
    The world’s most disadvantaged students need as many teachers as possible with a vision for defying expectations. We need teachers who are willing to reach beyond the four walls of the classroom, help their students rise above the challenges they face, and make up for weaknesses in schools and systems. Their leadership, high standards, and firm belief in their students’ abilities inspire those students to believe in themselves and strive for formerly unimaginable goals.

    School, district, policy, and community leaders
    Addressing educational inequity doesn’t end with heroic teachers. We know that teaching successfully in high-need communities is foundational for a lifetime of leadership and advocacy for educational opportunity. We need more committed individuals with this experience and motivation to go on to become school and district leaders, policymakers, founders of advocacy organizations, and business and civic leaders who continue to work towards equality and opportunity.

    System leaders
    Real change for all children requires strong schools and systems in communities where economies are improving, better nutrition and healthcare are available, and the streets and hallways are safer. Through shaping a generation of leaders working inside and outside of education, we can ensure that all children—everywhere—have the opportunity to fulfill their true potential.

  7. Department for International Development (DFID)

    General
    We suggest the report includes an explicit reference to progress against the education MDGs, which are essentially a sub-set of the EFAs – given the likely global interest in whether the MDGs have been met. This might mean using different baselines for some indicators.

    Early Childhood
    We suggest there is an emphasis on progress towards ‘readiness to learn’ indicator (being developed by UNICEF and monitoring through MICS). And that discussion of pre-primary education programmes considers different approaches that these can be implemented (eg through local communities and parental support), and any evidence of their relative effectiveness. It would also be worth noting that not all these types of pre primary education provision would be captured in official statistics.

    Universal primary education
    It would be important to reflect on the implications of population growth. On looking at the children out of school, we would suggest that the report looks at the data available on access and learning for the different marginalised groups – eg disabled, ethnic minorities, girls

    Learning Outcomes
    It would be useful for the report to present an analysis of availability of learning data – which countries have data and what type of data (eg national, regional, global), what are the main gaps, what are the implications for future reporting? Information on this should be available from the LMTF and UISs Observatory of Learning Outcomes, as well as regional and global assessment organisations.

    Post 2015
    A section on the implications for post 2015 would be helpful. What are the main lessons learnt? What is the evidence of the role of education on other key post 2015 themes: eg economic growth, gender equality; leaving no-one behind; strength of democracy and institutions?

  8. Atifa

    In my country Sudan efforts are exerted to reach EFA goals UNESCO has made a significant impact to achieve education for all. The EFA goals has made the nations proactive as the goals are international. However, challenges are always encountered I think my country is far from reaching the goals and it will be interesting to read the GMR and know about the challenges, policies and strategies to encounter.

  9. Prachi Srivastava

    My suggestions for the 2015 GMR fall into three broad categories:

    (1) On the 2015 GMR as a Summative Exercise

    This is obviously in line with the original time-frame of EFA (2000-2015), and as such, makes sense. Mapping and charting progress on the different goals is undoubtedly important, and will be a major focus of the report. However, the report can do more so that it is sufficiently distinguishable from the 2008 mid-term review. This is important because of a number of major changes that affect the political economy of education policy, provision, and delivery globally and in domestic contexts since 2000, and even since 2008. In addition to highlighting thinking at (Jomtien and) Dakar, the report should make note of this.

    We are no longer living in a world (if we ever were) where the global education policy directions set in formal top-down, high-level policy spaces, are ‘King’/’Queen’. For example, the influence of the private sector (e.g. transnational networks, corporates, local/individual actors with commercial motives; Southern private philanthropies; think tanks, etc.) and emergence of certain networks (e.g. the Global Education and Skills Forum, being dubbed the ‘Davos of education’) can be felt in the post-2015 education ‘buzz’. Significantly, much of this discussion is currently happening outside formal global (and domestic) education policy spaces. It is too early to adequately ascertain the impact of this going forward, but it is clear that this area needs critical examination.

    The 2009 GMR (led by Kevin Watkins), was the first to address the private sector by focusing on the emergence of the low-fee private sector, which has been a focus of GMRs since. I was invited to Paris for the background discussions on this. But, since then, the private sector (writ large) has mobilized to a much greater extent and will affect the shape of EFA post-2015, either formally in policy spaces, or in education delivery on the ground. One suggestion might be to alert readers to this and/or foreground this debate in the report.

    There is also a significant change in the macro-political context as a result of rapid globalization post-2000. The inter- and intra-regional influence of emerging economies (in particular, BRICS) and increasing South-South collaboration are significant for assessing the shape that education policy post-2015 may take. For example, the implementation of India’s newly legislated Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 is being watched by other South Asian countries (Pakistan has recently legislated a constitutional amendment very similar to one of India’s precursors). Pratham’s ASER learning assessment strategy in basic education, which began in India, is being replicated in Pakistan, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Mali, and Senegal. The Chinese programmes of development finance and aid have resulted in the construction of schools in a number of African countries.

    Finally, the emergence of ‘new non-DAC donors’ signals the need to incorporate broader analyses of official aid to education. These data are difficult to ascertain, but need to be incorporated into keeping the pressure up on traditional donors to move beyond lip service and meet their commitments to education. These issues (and others undoubtedly, unaddressed here) should be signalled in the report, perhaps under a broader topic of changing macro-dynamics influencing global education policy and EFA post-2015.

    (2) Seizing the Opportunity

    Timing is key. When will the 2015 GMR be out? Busan and the UN meetings in September will be key in setting the next phase of development goals. There is also uncertainty in what will happen with EFA post-2015.

    In any event, the GMR has established itself as the key report for global education analysis within international development circles and across interested parties.Given the greater post-2015 discussions, events, and meetings, the next report can be used to strategically mobilize action around EFA. Perhaps, by discussing some of the broader issues above, the team can link the 2015 and the 2016 reports (is it confirmed that there will be one?) as compendia for action post-2015. Of course, there is a fine line that the report must tread, between analysis and advocacy. Perhaps capitalizing on the media attention and addressing broader themes and foregrounding key issues can help to take a soft advocacy role, if the team decides that this is appropriate.

    (3) Promise for the Future

    Finally, the report can adopt a tone that highlights immediate action that can be taken to address existing gaps couched in education’s promise for the future, and to continue to push the case for donors to meet their commitments, and national governments to increase investment. This should be tied as much to a moral/ethical/rights-based argument and to the intrinsic value of education, as to the economic value (which has traditionally been stressed). The promise of relevant (not just economic) skills to take advantage of the demographic dividend in high populous, young countries; the social promise of educated girls and women to contribute to more stable societies; the promise of education in building cohesive and stable countries, particularly in fragile circumstances.

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  11. Peter Mittler

    My hope is that disability-disaggregated data from selected LMIC countries will be included in the WIDE database and is fully incorporated in a substantial section on disability in the 2015 report. Although I was pleased to note that disability was mentioned more frequently in the 2014 report than its predecessors, it failed to reflect evidence of serious study of such evidence as is available.

    Interest in data collection and analysis has been stimulated by the UN GA Assembly resolution following the High Level Meeting on Disability and Development, as well as by the concerns expressed by the OHCHR about the inability of Member States to produce disability-disaggregated data for monitoring as required by the CRPD. UNDP has a co-ordinating role for disability across all UN organisations and has provided leadership in the inclusion of basic data in household surveys and censuses.

    The link to the Statistics for Inclusive Development section of the UN Enable website (www.un.org/disabilities) reports the most recent developments following a meeting on March 4th. I particularly draw your attention to the contribution by Claudia Cappa who leads on disability stats for UNICEF. Rich data have also been collected in the more recent MICS reports and more promising work is under way. I attach a short paper which I submitted for the attention of the organisers and which summarises my concerns. The draft chapter enclosed with my last message also refers to relevant work from the UNESCO ECLAC region.

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  13. Maggie Kariuki

    In my country (Kenya),we responded to the EFA call in 2003 by launching Free Primary Education (FPE)I would say that it was a laudable strategy by UNESCO and other stakeholders to get this going because it shed more light on the issue of formal schooling.However,this move has been faced by many challenges here as enrollment does not always translate to retention of these children in school.We are still grappling with basic issues of adequate infrastructure and other learning resources needed to get the schools going,especially in the Arid and semi arid lands.On the other hand,we are still debating on the issue of “education” and “schooling”our nomadic communities still prefer to offer informal education to their young as they are perpetually migrating in search of greener pastures for their flock…and we are saying,Does this count?and the nomads ask;why not?our children can learn on the hills while tending the flocks…what’s the difference?tough to argue with that one.We are still in the process of offering more training to our teachers to furnish them with the necessary skills to bring EFA home and many other basic issues that would contribute to inclusion of all our children in mainstream schools.This is where we are and I would say that it is all beneficial to us,regardless of the challenges.I would say that we are more ‘on the job’ As a teacher educator,I get to hear the teachers’ voices and their views towards EFA as we get closer to the 2015 finish line.It is a cocktail of issues and most of them quite enlightening for me.Things we took for granted are a major barrier to education,and some are very important and contribute greatly to success in keeping our children in school.As 2015 approaches,I would say that in Kenya,we are just beginning.There is a lot of information on this issue at the grassroots level,yet,I would like to agree with Awo from Ghana that very few people from our countries of the South are exposed to such a forum where they would give their views.All in all,I would say that where EFA is concerned, we are still a long way,probably from the Northern countries.But I think that there can be no standard evaluation here as each country is different in matters of culture,resources and economy status.We can only proceed at our own pace,using our own initiative and available resources to realize our own EFA Goals.We are the only ones who can solve our problems because we know where we are coming from,and I guess this goes for all countries.The richness of this is contained in sharing of experiences from different places and that way,we all progress at our own level.I am really looking forward to reading on EFA from other people in this forum.I am a great supporter of EFA,of course with issues here and there,based on my experience with teachers and children.They have a lot to say,based on their daily experiences.They give EFA a whole new meaning for me.I have to put my books away many times to listen to them,because I realize that I know very little when it comes to putting EFA into practice.The journey continues…..

  14. Dr Darol Cavanagh

    Darol Cavenagh
    Dekatota Trading Company at Dekatota Trading Company

    EFA has been formal policy initiative for UNESCO for 15 years. In order to see what this policy issue looks like on the ground, that is, in terms of the operational outcomes in rural areas the Team needs to examine the UNESCO research centres that actually do this. One such Centre that has been extremely active in creating training programs to implement EFA is the UNESCO-INRULED Centre originally in Baoding, currently located in Beijing Normal University. INRULED (International Research and Training Centre for Rural Development) conducts international seminars, workshops, locational visits, trials, networking, Memorandums of Associations, How to do it publications, demonstrations and so on, for teachers, students, curriculum experts, government policy makers, Non Government agencies etc in a range of EFA imperatives. Evaluation reports of these activities using independent international experts is a feature of this organisation. A google search will identify, past, current and planned initiatives.
    Dr Darol Cavanagh Australia

  15. David Archer

    It will be important for the 2015 GMR to document the dramatic changes in the way that civil society has engaged in influencing education policy and practice since 2000. Before Dakar there were almost no national education coalitions. The Global Campaign for Education was formed on the eve of Dakar in 1999 and since then we have seen the emergence of national education coalitions in about 100 countries, in many cases becoming significant new actors in education polcy dialogue, linking NGOs, teacher unions, parents groups and socal movements; working with journalists and parliamentarians; tracking education budgets and increasing accountability; campaigning on key issues from abolition of user fees to mother tongue and inclusive education etc; securing new doemstic financing commitments and national legislation etc. This represents a major change in the education landscape in many countries and although this work is still evolving it will be important for GMR to make bold efforts to document this as part of the EFA journey from 2000 to 2015.

  16. Julien Lescop

    This report will encompass almost exhaustively all the areas of education for development. My only criticism would be of the “optimism” inherent to this report: formula as “The Report will assess the evidence of an acceleration in progress” for example doesn’t make much room for the bad outcomes of some policies or for the particularities of some countries. Anyway, I wish you good luck with the production of the report and look forward to read it!

  17. Teresa

    UNESCO has made a significant impact on the strive to provide quality education for all. The EFA goals has made the nations proactive as the goals are international. However, challenges are always encountered and it will be interesting to read the GMR about these challenges, policies and strategies to encounter.

  18. Joan Lombardi

    Dear GMR team,

    Thank you for sharing the outline for the 2015 report.

    This is to recommend a comprehensive review of Goal 1. As you know, there has been limited focus on this critical goal since the 2007 report. For example, while the 2013/14 report on Teaching and Learning includes an update on Goal 1, and discusses early primary in some sections, there is no mention of early childhood before primary in the sections on teachers and very little in the section on curriculum. Yet we know that early childhood is indeed the gateway to learning. We need to ensure that the 2015 report:
    – Provides a comprehensive review of the link between early development (across developmental domains) and later successful learning .
    – Includes the latest research, such as the newest Lancet on Child Development and the latest issue on Integrated Early Childhood Services (NY Academy of Sciences)
    – Reviews the latest indicator efforts including LMTF, UNICEF (MICS and Early Development Index), WHO and UNESCO as well as regional and national examples
    – Highlights policy challenges and progress as documented in several reports such as the World Bank, Early Childhood SABER. etc
    – Provides some estimate of teacher recruitment training needs for preschool and other early childhood programs
    – Estimates the financing needs to bring early childhood to scale.
    – Highlights the need to reach out to families, particularly for children under age 3 to assure parenting programs and family support as a key to learning and healthy development.
    – Discusses the promising practices emerging around the world
    – Encourages coordinated planning across the health, education and social protection ministires.

    I encourage you to form a working group on ECD that can help the GMR team put the appropriate focus on the early years.

    Please let me know how I can provide further input and support.

    Sincerely,
    Joan Lombardi, Ph.D.

  19. Eusebio pecurto (@Eusebiopecurto)

    Portugal a educação é um dos mais fascinantes laboratórios da Democracia comtemporãnia é de elogiare admirar nos tempos que vão corredo com a educação esta a caminhar a passos largos dentro das comunidades pobres deste nosso infeliz Planeta

  20. Dave Pearson

    Language of instruction is a cross-cutting theme that impacts all six goals. Your outline for the 2015 GMR considers the language aspect for goal 4, but not for the others.

  21. Lily Nyariki

    UNESCO has championed several initiatives in education and books. What puzzles me is how these initiatives are always championed separately as though education can be attained without books. What I mean is that classroom education is necessary and good to instill the three R’s. The problem with this though is that most public schools do not have the necessary reading materials to enable and ensure quality teaching and learning. I am attaching a paper which I think your researchers need to consider and see how best, books and education are made to compliment one another with the aim of getting desired results in efforts being made by EFA secretariat. School libraries do matter and are absolutely necessary for quality education.

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